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S2 Training (TWR)


The S2 training in the FIR Langen takes place at the following airports. We hereby differentiate between Tier 1 and unrestricted airports:

Tier 1 Unrestricted


To start your training at a Tier 1 airport, you must apply for a Ground Endorsement in our forum:

This is where you will practice your skills on ground. This level of training is accompanied by a Moodle course and is mainly self-study. It is important that you not only read the documents but also understand and learn the content. While studying ask other controllers, research and observe on frequency. If a training reveals that you do not meet the requirements, the training can be canceled immediately.

The training on Vatsim requires a high level of self-study, self-reflection and commitment.

If you choose to do your training at an unrestricted airport, you will start active training from the Tower Introduction. 

After a minimum of 25 hours and 3 months, you can register for a tower introduction. As well as theory lessons, your mentors will teach you how to work in a tower position through simulations and online training. 

Once your mentor gives you the go-ahead to control by yourself, you will be given a 30-day solo clearance. At the end of the solo phase, you must complete at least one CPT preparation course. If you complete this successfully, you will be granted a further 30-day solo clearance, at the end of which the CPT will take place. 

If you fail the exam on your first attempt, you will have another 30 days of Solo Phase to prepare for the retake.

If you have not received your rating at the end of the 90 days, the training will be paused for 1 year.

We expect you to use your training efficiently because it requires a lot of mentoring hours. If we have the impression that you are not using the solo phases and/or trainings for your learning progress and you are showing little to no activity, we reserve the right to withdraw the solo or even your training position at any time. Exceptions may be made in agreement with the lead mentor.

Training types and abbreviations

Every training will take place on our Teamspeak server in the channel "Training". 

  • PEW (Positionseinweisung): During a "PEW" you will get all the necessary information for controlling at the corresponding airport. This contains local procedures and specialties only. As this is just theoretical knowledge, it will most likely be combined with a Sim-Session. If available, this step can be a Moodle course and online test.
  • Sim: Vatsim hosts a so called "sweatbox" server where sim sessions can be run. This has nothing to do with the live traffic on the network and is used for training special situations or making the first steps at bigger airports. The aircrafts are controlled by a mentor and the "radio transmissions" are done via TeamSpeak.
  • OTS (Over-the-shoulder): During an OTS you will control a station on the live network. A mentor will always be by your side to help you, answer you questions and take over the station if necessary.
  • Solophase: The so called "Solo" allows you to control at our training airports without having the requiered rating. The Solo is limited in time and allows autonomous training before an exam.
  • ATSimTest: The ATSimTests are web-based multiple choice tests which you already know from the S1 (Minor) Training. They need to be passed before your CPT. They can be found here.
  • CPT (Controller practical test): A CPT is a practical exam where you show an examiner and a local mentor what you have learned.

After each training session there will be a debriefing session where you and the mentor will discuss the session. The mentor will also tell you where you can improve and give you tips on how to do this. Of course, there will be time for you to ask any questions you may have had during the control.

Tip: You may and should listen to all kind of training sessions of other trainees. This is highly recommended and expected in all training phases, as the training sessions you actively attend will most likely not be sufficient on their own.

Training Steps

This is only an outline of the training steps to the S2-CPT. As the personal speed of learning and progress varies greatly between trainees, there may be individual variations. There might be extra steps at certain airports due to the complexity.


Tier 1 Ground Endorsement

  • You have controlled at least 10 hours during the S1 training

  • You have requested an introductory session on our forum for the airport you wish to train at

  • If applicable, you prepared available Moodle training steps
  • If you have been placed on a waiting list, you have controlled at least 10 hours in the last two months


Together with a mentor, you will go through the theory for your endorsement and practice staffing the position during a simulation session. If your mentor is satisfied with your performance, you will receive your ground endorsement. If not, a second session may be required or training may continue at an unrestricted airport.

Although it is not prohibited, we strongly recommend that you only control at your training airport. An exception to this is the preparation for the tower introduction. This can be practiced on an S1 tower shortly before.

Ground Checkout

  • You have controlled at least 25 hours on the ground endorsement
  • A mentor has contacted you regarding your checkout
  • You have booked the station with Training=Yes as soon as the training date is confirmed. If there is a booking conflict, contact your mentor

In this checkout, you show one mentor that you can apply the skills you have learned on ground. To do this, you occupy the position for at least 1 hour. This is followed by a detailed debriefing.

If the checkout is rated positively, you can apply for your Tower Introduction.

The Checkout has to be done only on Tier 1 airports.

Tower Introduction

  • A mentor has contacted you regarding your training
  • You have completed and passed the chapter "TWR Introduction" in the Moodle course
  • You have completed and passed the chapter "Advanced Tower Handling" in the Moodle course

After the theory lesson, the introductory session is held in two parts. Depending on the training airport, the theory and simulation sessions may take place on the same day. 

After successful instruction, you will continue your tower training. During your S1 solo phase (30 days in the standard case), you will independently control your training airport and prepare for your CPT, which you will also complete there.

Please apply for an over-the-shoulder training after 2 weeks. You should have controlled at least 10 hours by then.

OTS Training

  • You have controlled for at least 10 hours
  • Your introduction was 2 weeks ago
  • A mentor has contacted you regarding your training
  • You have booked the station with Training=Yes as soon as the training date is confirmed. If there is a booking conflict, contact your mentor
  • You have completed and passed the chapter "OTS Training" in the Moodle course

Together with a mentor, you control XXXX_TWR (and all stations below) in the evening. The mentor checks if you are applying all procedures correctly and how you handle yourself online.

After another 2 weeks, you should apply for your CPT preparation training.

CPT Preparation Training

  • You have controlled at least 25 hours at your exam airport
  • You have a good routine for dealing with "normal" traffic situations
  • You have reviewed all theory you have learned throughout your training
  • A mentor has contacted you regarding your training  
  • You have completed the chapter "Advanced & Final Training" in the Moodle course

Usually, two CPT preparation trainings are conducted in the simulator. Take the opportunity to listen to other trainings!

If the mentor is satisfied with your performance and your theoretical knowledge, he will give you the "go" for your final training.

If you successfully complete the first CPT preparation training, you will be given a further solo phase of 30 days.

Final Training

  • Your mentor has given you the "go" for the final training
  • You have booked the station with Training=Yes as soon as the training date is confirmed. If there is a booking conflict, contact your mentor

You will occupy the examination station under the supervision of a mentor. GND and DEL are blocked, so this training shows if you are ready for the CPT.

The mentor might notice a few things that you could do better that didn't show up in the simulator.

If the mentor is satisfied with your performance, he will give you the "Go" for the CPT. He then makes an appointment with you and applies for your CPT. With your CPT application, the ATSimTest will be activated.

ATSimTest S2

  • Your mentor has given you the "go" for your CPT
  • You can find the test on the following webpage:
  • If you have further questions about the contents of the ATSimTest, please contact one of the mentors, before you submit the exam

The ATSimTest must be completed and passed before starting the CPT. Otherwise, the exam cannot take place!


  • Your mentor gave you the "Go" for the CPT.
  • You have passed the ATSimTest
  • You have booked the station for a duration of 1 hour (times in UTC!)
  • In the [STAFFING/BOOKING] Thread you have left a note that you want to do a CPT at that time.
  • Your mentor or the Leading Mentor will request an examiner at the ATC Training Department. If your CPT can take place, you will see this in the thread Bestätigte Controller CPTs.
  • All CPTs held on a day other than the weekly event must be advertised. You can request your advertisement in the following thread: [CPT] Request für CPT-Werbung (The Leading Mentor/CoT has the final say on whether the CPT should be advertised).
  • Please organize a replacement yourself, e.g. by creating a thread in the forum section of the FIR Langen or by asking for it in the Staffing/Booking Thread.

During the CPT, you will demonstrate to two examiners (an ATD examiner and a local examiner) that you have mastered all ground positions. All tower and ground training content is relevant to the exam. You will control your airport top-down, but we will give you a relief station if the traffic load becomes overwhelming.

Tip: control safely and exactly the way you learned it. Don't try to control the traffic overly cautiously, nor do try to get out to all limits and beyond - the examiners only want to see that you can handle the traffic volume well and as confidently as possible. A perfect CPT is therefore very boring for the examiners to watch. If you should have a major mishap or it's just not your day at all, don't be too disappointed about a failed CPT - of course, you have (mostly after a new CPT preparation training) another try.

After passing the CPT, you will receive your S2 rating. By upgrading your rating to S2, you will be allowed to staff all unrestricted airports and, subject to your mentor's approval, your training airport. For Tier 1 or Tier 2 airports, you must undergo an introduction prior to controlling there.